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Thursday, June 20, 2013

Extreme Cold

HTML'S MAGIC: Extreme Cold - Part 1 Ch.1 'A History and Monologue on Matter and Natural Systems
in Materials Science of/for Energy Systems within
any Macroscopic Scale'.
Part 1 Chapter 1

by GP duBerger

Chapter 1: The Mystery of Heat

image of an oblong section of ice placed vertically to form the letter I in black and white
CC GP duBerger
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t's January and it's cold in the northern hemisphere - well.... it's not really that cold. We've had worse.
Back in the 17th century, there was what is now known as Little ice age, and because of ignorance and superstition Cold was also felt as a physical presence, being only feared, endured and definitely something not to be tampered with. It was conceded in the form of "surrender", manifesting itself like a trial by ordeal which was materialized by a god.

Before there were scientists, there was what was known as “ Natural Philosophers” (today's Natural Science) who attempted to find an explanation for cold.

Concerning any belief, system or hypothesis on how cold was transmitted; they, like today's science philosophers, were divided into two camps concerning energy, which like today's particle and wave groups, there were the corpuscular (particle) and ethereal matter (Aristotelian) groups.
They became important and reached a wider audience with the invention of the printing press and publishing.

According to the leading Aristotelianist of the time (followers of Descartes) cold was the recess of ethereal matter leaving the pores of a substance.

According to the Corpuscular philosophers (followers of Newton), Cold was an act of god whose agent/perpetrator was Frigorific Particles that acted like nitrous salts floating in the air and insinuated themselves like wedges or nails between the molecules of water, destroying their mobility and occasionally adding to their bulk since it was known that salts added to snow greatly increased cold.

For PC/Laptop users
Hover over hyperlinks for quick explanations, or use "Ok Google"
(For Android and iOS users, use "Ok Google")

[Hover over Rust-highlighted areas 000000 for skill-testing questions and 000000 Green-highlighted area for answer.]

Not available for Android and iOS users ◔̯◔

The W3 consortium doesn't like this, but they have not deprecated the Title attribute either. My view is that this feature will be available one day for Android and iOS use one day. In the mean time they are boldly coloured and so easy to find when coming back and using a PC/Laptop.

This was at a time where Cold was a Material Theory, so there was as well a material theory for Heat ("materia ignis"), one of which was invented by Henry Cavendish (Discoverer of Hydrogen) and called the Phlogiston Theory, which was mostly concerned with combustion.
This theory was later more developed by Johann Joachim Becher (Physician & Alchemist) and Joseph Priestly (Discoverer of Oxygen), which was that all things that were combustible contained "Phlogiston", a substance without colour, odor, taste, or mass which was liberated by "burning".

Of course, the Phlogiston theory is all wrong, plus there are some very important things missing in the phlogiston theory itself which involve heat that they could not of known about at the time. There were, nevertheless, some important aspects in the theory that, historically, are significant.

This is from Wikipedia with a few corrections and one adition (no italics):

Jjbecher.jpg J.J.Becher
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“The Phlogiston theory permitted "chemists" (Note: There were no "chemists" during Cavendish's or Becher's time, but only alchemists) to bring clarification of apparent different phenomena, like combustion, metabolism, and the configuration of rust. The identification of a relation between combustion and metabolism was a forerunner, enabling recognition in that the metabolism of living organisms and combustion could be understood in terms of many related chemical processes”. This is like Louis Pasteur who linked life with chemical structure! See: Molecular asymmetry

Diagram of Phlogiston poor earth and phlogiston (fire) equals Phlogiston rich metal
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Rust was an important concern and also a nuisance to the alchemist, who were trying to turn lead into gold, or find the philosopher's stone, that would do such a thing.
Rust was not an option.

Alchemists could turn cinnabar into mercury and mercury back into cinnabar, but they could not turn rust back into iron.
This connection between rust and combustion involving heat is from a well-known experiment that involves iron instead of salt, where rust in iron will occur much more rapidly under the influence of heat and that "burnt" iron has more mass than ordinary iron.

People who remember the old-style galvanized pipping for hot and cold water will know that the hot-water side corroded much more quickly and required a complete retrofit to zinc, copper or plastic pipes, i.e. whatever local building codes allowed. See: E VIII (Page 86-87 of 'The Experimental Basis of Chemistry: Suggestions for a Series of Experiments' by Ida Freund - (1920)

The following concepts should of been taught to you in elementary school. Together, they are the very foundation of the physical universe, Information theory and logic.

Further, rust will occur without the application of heat albeit more slowly which opened the door for the interrelated systems of Latent heat (Hidden Heat) and Phase transition (Phase change), Specific heat (Specific heat capacity), Internal Energy (in chemistry: Enthalpy ) to be acknowledged in relationships with Heat transfer, (convection, conduction, radiation & vaporization.), a Second-Law Entropy, (Entropy as Time's Arrow) which historically, was useful for understanding limits on the efficiency of steam engines and other Thermodynamic Closed systems, Time which would become very important in the future on the study of heat and its near-infinite applications and finally, in the 20th century, the acknowledged Principle of Thermal equilibrium (The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics) which established heat as existing in the same manner as Galileo's experiments on falling masses of different weight. ****** 000000 (Mouseover Rust and Green areas)
(In this history and monologue, Galileo Galilei is a superlative genius, far beyond any other history ever-written about him and far surpassing Issac Newton.)

The concepts of various Entropies we know of involve Systems (either an open, closed or isolated system) and all will be discussed later in detail as there are different kinds of entropy for each assembly and none by themselves have anything to do with philosophy, but only in considering all of them simultaneously we will find their metaphysics (if in terms meaning, "progression" for "meta").

This is because systems, themselves, are not only physical things but can be abstract as well, therefore they can only be correctly-viewed dynamically. They are more a construct of different assemblies put together, where they then embody an independent expression and reason, and a new power and spirit that would be as valuable to life, science as they would be to art, including their philosophies.

Thermodynamics explains its version of weight loss or weight gain.

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For instance, a "simple" matter in nutrition as an example. Here we will apply the first two Thermodynamic systems (See: concepts) of Latent heat and Phase transition (Phase equilibrium state) and the Conservation of energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics).

We can conjugate the other thermodynamics concepts, principles and laws which will provide valuable information, but that's for later, or another time. Right now, we want to keep things simple because these are sufficient for our purpose here.

Mr. So & So who is 5' 9" and weighs 145lbs gets food poisoning and suffers an incredible loss of weight. Then in this weakened condition he catches influenza B. The man pulls through, but he lost 45lbs and is incredibly weak.

A nutritionist will put him on a specific high calcium/magnesium/energy/protein diet which works up to a point, which we will say is 120lbs. and it stays there for a long time. the patient voluntarily eats more and nothing happens! He asks the nutritionist; “What's happening?” “Where is all this matter going to because I don't see it on the bathroom scale?”

A very good nutritionist, with time to kill, would say the body has been traumatized (as indicated by the patient losing nearly 1/3 of normal weight) the calcium/magnesium is for bones, protein gives the body the necessary building blocks to rebuild wasted muscles, and the energy (anything with sugar and fat) for building fat and stamina. “Your body is rebuilding, but with a difference!”

“Your Central nervous system (CNS) remembers that your body was attacked twice and you nearly died. This is no longer acceptable and it does not have the luxuries of the brain in creating abstract models in how to predict these things from not ever happening again. It's a primitive form of intelligence, but the only one that's endowed by Nature and so is to be respected because there is no "Mind over Matter" but there is Nature's supervision and systematic "Spinal Column and Central Nervous System over Matter”.

“Now, the CNS wants a larger margin of survival or degree of disease resistance because in its universe there is no "Scientific method" of/for proof because it's not reproducible ”. (or, “it must be reproducible to be true ”). “It does not understand this, which you will soon realize is a good thing”.

“It already happened and that's enough! Examples are, try to put your hand on a hot stove and keep it there. That's not your brain preventing you from doing that. It is your CNS doing that and has, whether primitive or not, immediate, total and complete control of your brain from performing this nonsense, where try as you might you can't even approach to do it”. “ Even the most "unfeeling" psychotic can't put his hand on the hot stove because there are no emotions in the Central Nervous System; There are only feelings, but the neurotic might understand this apathetically because he knows its true, but he doesn't like it! ”.

“Of course, the hand could be anesthetized but even there the central nervous system, either has intelligence from whatever vestiges it has in the brain working for the C.N.S. that betray the brain; or is intelligent enough to know the difference, wherein either the case will instantly adjust the metabolism where the anesthesia is not as effective”.

“Thermodynamics has the answer you are looking for concerning your state in recovery that appears to not be moving up anymore where you remain underweight at 120lbs from another state where your weight was steadily rising”.

flask of gas surrounded by water
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“Think carefully upon this: Your body is essentially an Adiabatic Second-Law-of-Thermodynamic machine that leaks”. (Adiabatic: A system that, outside of it, only communicates Work)

“How much and why it leaks has been the problem that Zen Buddhists have been trying to solve for thousands of years because of any two, or more qualities of what we leak out and communicate outside the system besides Work, oppose, compete or contradict the organism. (i.e. urine, waste, sweat, useless chatter, etc. therefore the body feeds on things it can't use, but other organisms can and the energy we do gain is often wasted on illogic and nonsense.)“

“The CNS's state of Zen Buddhist's "Nothingness" is not an ultimate attainment, but a quality to be used as a unit for a measure in attaining balance and/or equilibrium with those opposing contradictions that are always produced and are always part of existence because humans are not alone but part of a broad ecosystem”.

“Thousands of miles away: A paraphrased Jesus Christ may just as well of said: “Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to Nature the things that are Nature's.” This is the same where instead the unit for a measure is Nature and the contradiction (argument) is on 'Authority' because we are addressing two kinds of authority with different interests, but each for different reasons are necessary̵.

“I avoid the whole thing altogether and state: Regarding energy/information transfers, There are no perfect or ideal systems for living/organic entities or their systems and they are nominal because they overlap or touch each other. There are only perfect for ideal systems, for non-living inorganic systems where they never overlap”.

“All confusion, contradictions, arguments etc., exist only within overlapping boundaries between those that are isolated, closed and open thermodynamic systems for living beings or organics systems”.

three cubes in thermal communication
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“According to Thermodynamics, your weight is 120lbs Inclusive, to your normal weight! Your immune and related systems are being reprogrammed and have their own life cycle too and this takes energy, mass and time, and a lot of that mass and energy comes out as sweat or perspiration cycle. Have you been sweating in your sleep, or waking up overheated but it did not bother you like it normally would of?”

“This is no different than the temperature difference between the primary states of inorganic ice and water. Both can exist at 0°C and your 120 lbs is a similar situation that is absorbing a lot of energy but so long as you maintain your diet you are in a phase transition which when over your weight will once again go up steadily and most likely to your nominally normal weight, but be assured that this "delay" is telling you that your body will be better than it was before”.

“This energy and mass is only hidden from the bath scale but exists doing other things that are important to Nature and your body. This cannot be registered or acknowledged by just a bathroom scale”.

“There at returning to your proper weight, if you continue your present diet you'll find that your nominal weight becomes a phase change transition again where suddenly, in a big surprise your weight goes up steadily and you are in a new phase called "overweight". People who don't understand this find this a difficult problem, but with Thermodynamics speaking for your body, it is not. You know you need to change your diet and if necessary, modify some routine(s) to get back to a state of phase equilibrium. i.e. ideal weight”

The broader picture

It is important to always remember that there's are underlying principles, delegated to theory regarding any energy system mentioned, and any of them could be sufficient to power (in principle) a community. This theory involves an evolution of those thermodynamic systems (open, closed and isolated) by no longer being separate, but by their inclusion, addition or combination.

This theory, in being a working reality already exists in hybrid vehicles. Studying power-applications of hybrids is our first step towards understanding the existence of engineering energy and/or Heat where it's just a matter of invention or the conjugating of systems, or assemblies of elements like they were verbs, to apply them adaptively, while they serve all our required needs.

Now, back to Phlogiston

Diagram of phlogiston rich wood & already-existing phlogiston in the air equals ashes with no phlogiston
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To recapitulate: The worst aspect of the phlogiston theory was that we create a focus and paradigm for science, in where from its inception we only consider subsonic combustion at atmospheric pressure and its chemistry (fire) as the only, and/or the most important method to create heat, energy and Work and in only one direction which became necessary because of this desire to measure and calculate while using the Decimal system exclusively (discussed later).

So besides, they already knowing that fire can exist in better and different forms besides a fluid. We must also differentiate and quantify the aspects of "burnt" metal and burnt wood or paper, etc., which weighs less when "burned", —not more like some metals, but volume-wise they are both decreased compared to their original sources.

We must consider, as well, the weight of the escaped gases and particulate matter, which must be condensed or separated immediately which requires Energy from other sources (not Work) to gather this sort of information.

Note how complicated heat is becoming already. This is not my doing, but is more because of the stercus tauri you have been taught and conditions to believe in as a pupil, all the way to high school.

Priests and Ministers make you believe in the invisible and call this real.
Scientists and teachers make you believe in conditions and call them natural.

Thermodynamics is not qualia. As a matter a fact, its methods to describe heat systems can be used in the same manner to explain most subjective experiences more easily, and superior to maths, physics, philosophy, medicine, psychology, art, poetry or religion that when followed, augment those fields and professions.

So, besides treating qualia as a system with quantifiable elements instead of accepting people who make an exploitative career out of misery; who either taking forever to help people or never being able to help anything or anyone because they are polluted: —Thermodynamics can also rewire your brain and make you smarter than most of today's science popularizers/presenters and communicators, where you will no longer be susceptible to their lies, mistakes or balderdash.
At the very least, one would be able to distinguish between scientific opinion and opinion from scientists.

So-called facts and opinions give way to the Zeroth's law syllogistic logic, which a person of an IQ of 80 can use immediately, so you don't need to memorise, process tons of data. Just by conjugating simple or basic principles will carry one "vary" far,

In Syllogistics, Thermodynamics is not science, but more a philosophy incommunicado requiring only that one observes the action, the idea, thing, a system, the entity, etc., (in this case we will say a rock and always-increasing entropy) and by observation follow it for some proposed unit of time.

Any observable change is data which can then make proposals or provide a more accurate understanding which range from acumen to wit within a lexicon of synonyms of the word Judgment (which depends on what we are looking for, or what kind of purposeful answer we want) that, in any case, answers important questions or brings us closer to the truth.

Abstract: By epistemological standards, we would know that we are getting closer to a truth, a reality, a proof, a way or a judgement etc., by simply looking at a thesaurus and checking how many antonyms don't, or no longer apply to the dynamic in question.

This method of the logic of dynamic then allows or lends itself to any form of legitimate expressions like, for example, maths, flowcharts, diagrams, etc., even art, music and poetry! Even expressions that don't exist because they have not been invented because their insight is not necessary yet.

Image of two men evaluating an abstract work of art
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Successful modern artists were those who could express their breakthroughs and developments, or they were immediately understood to/by Art Critics i.e. Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Andy Warhol etc., in this manner since the study of light and line and their offshoots in art is not much different than the study heat and entropy in science or engineering!

In another sense: It is much like the fox and hound detective work that requires that special mind that is not riddled with belief systems or scientific dogma to appreciate, deduce or implement and loves only the law and the few facts a criminal leaves as clues who with the similar economy can/will eventually catch him.

A great policeman will also think somewhat as a criminologist and/or admirers where he knows that the criminal is guilty, but can't prove it, or there are many mitigating circumstances where the long arm of the law still cannot reach to apply any justice, so he will change tactics and furnish his data to another arm of the law, whose arm is just right to catch him. Examples being; Al Capone or O.J. Simpson, Martin Shkreli etc. etc. (Their weakness and downfall are not because they laugh at society but laugh at people directly.)

This is powerful stuff because (for example) with this method I understood, sometime around 7 years ago, and without knowing physics and maths beyond high school level that information was physical and alive by just conjugating Thermodynamics.

Alive because subsequent strange and quantum-like aspects of review appeared out of nowhere, but were never out of place either and always appear (ed) at the exact proper time that practically invoke a real and very discernable Delphic Oracle-like feeling, which I relate to in their proper place in this monologue and other essays.

I have a general rule where if anything was around for at least 500 years and people swore by it, then there is something valid. (Keep in mind that artists like to keep things in context because the fringes of the unknown or forgotten are not forgotten in art and the unknown is no place for fear.)

Information made me understand that it is never practical to ask questions on how "Nothing can become something" but is a more a simpler and friendlier "Nowhere to somewhere" principle that provides a template to all existence in any manner one wishes to conjugate that. For now, I ask the reader/visitor to pay special attention to when I mention the word "Information" in this monologue/history. As in many things in life, sometimes you have to wait for it. While you wait, take a look around, where suddenly everything just snaps into position!

Just as I'm writing this section because there are so many wonderful things to discuss and friends to refer to, but I'm desperate to move on and so this appears out of nowhere and (with respect) if one understands the nature of the Quora website you'll then truly appreciate it's providence!

For your convenience, I put this valuable short essay by Stephen James Anastasi it in my public access Google Drive. See: If all the mass of the universe came from the Big Bang, where did this mass come from in the first place?

In the conjugation of the protocol 'From Nowhere To Somewhere', we have 'To rebuild we have to demolish first!'

Your reprogramming and de-indoctrination will begin in the same manner I teach newbies computers. —Watching them in their dumbfound amazement and seeing that they are convincing themselves that they could never learn what I'm showing them, I tell them: “I'm just showing you what you can do and what to expect.”

“ When you get your own computer you will know what is possible, then it's just a matter of learning a basic procedure, which I will show you.”
“Once you have that understood, you will be surprised at what you can master, do and find out on your own.”

I paraphrase Ms. Amber Case (a Cyborg anthropologist), “This thing is like Mary Poppin's bag. This computer is bigger inside than outside. Inside you can put your own libraries of information, pictures, books, music and movies and find near-infinite other resources with it. ”

This, I have noted, everyone understands. I see it in their faces: Panic and Fear gives way to Excitement and Adventure!

Just to see their becalmed faces or excitement is very satisfying to me. I know immediately beforehand, I will have a good student and quick learner who won't be bothering me with stupid or leading questions, except for what I showed them to lean for.

The system I will employ here will be by describing the planet's ecology and the “History of Heat and Man” (as elements & assemblies) and walk you through 'experiences' and 'reactions', their beliefs and economics in/of their 'societies' (all treated as interacting systems). And so forth......

A book on diseases based on the phlogiston theory entitled: 'Physical Education' in 1667 by Becher
A 17th century phlogiston-based medical text for doctors.
Hint: When theories start to crash and burn they, historically always get recycled into some medical practice or treatment. (I have other examples)
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Phlogiston: Historically, the first scientific idea that turned a quick profit.

(Well.....This is a history. Not a course on science!)

Science was now becoming more interesting to the cognoscenti and the well-to-do. It was evolving into something markable that even the church was taking notice. At first against (Thermodynamics), —but not for long, as making piles of money with physics countermands dogma. To this day all religions distort or suppress Thermodynamics, but not physics!

This is because, Thermodynamics is the only science method or philosophy that can disprove any theological belief conclusively and instruct readers of religious literature to read only in symbolic terms to understand it/them correctly. Religions themselves are just plain businesses that sell Heaven (or equivalent) and give Hell (or equivalent) for free.

This goes as well in reevaluating Materialism and we can explain Capitalism correctly in its proper contexts because it cannot be disproved.

Capitalism is Tricky
The heart will say, it's true purpose is to engage libertarianisms against authoritarianisms, but the heart is wrong.

What I meant by "capitalism" and "context", is that we have both good and bad ideas serving ‘Free Enterprise' (Left-leaning Libertarianism) and ' Private Enterprise' (Right-leaning Libertarianism) and the "Public Enterprise" (The Public sector, like a government agency). These economic policies date back to Roman Emperors and it is them who decide what and how machines get to the public and for what purpose and for whose benefit.

“Political ideology is best viewed as a quadrant and not a straight line pole”. (See: The opposite of libertarian political.....)

Where politics is the art of interfering in all of them, but is more like an artist using only a black and white colour palette, called, "Laws" and "Rights" instead.

Briefly: This is because we have to consider conjugating the Private-Public enterprise/sectors and Public-Private enterprise/sectors of a capitalistic economy because that is what Legislation only considers recognizable, if we examine the laws governing, Ownership, of a Copyright or a Patent, from the Laws and Rights written for individuals, groups, entities or states, public property laws and praedial servitudes, or Eminent domain rights of the state (and its agencies) concerning who, what, can and/or why and how anyone can obtain them. (People can only have rights if the state first claims them for itself.)

All of that boils down to, who or what owns and/or controls energy, how and what format it will be sold as/in, and what system the powers-that-be decide what future is of more of interest to them.
Naturally, it is closed-energy systems that are chosen because they deter revolution and their overthrow from absolute power because by getting rid of them also removes the ability to rebuild.

Politically, who could blame them wanting an insurance policy, but times have changed and there's a new player to contend with, who does not care even if your're god. Its goal is to exterminate and obliterate all of mankind like we were a disease. On top of that, this new player won't even be aware it did anything wrong.

Long before there were things like the Bilderburg group, etc., etc., there was the Sun, the Moon, The Earth, The air, water, etc., etc., where around 10,000 years ago conditions were just right to end the last ice Age and allowed human populations to flourish, for the first time. These records exist in ice sheets in the Antarctic which can be read as the changes to Co2 content in the atmosphere. It also tells us we can only exist under a very narrow margin of a particular chemistry and heat.

Now, skip ahead 10,000 years and our finest educated, most powerful are only concerned with profit. They lack the initiative of leadership and vision because they never had the benefits that struggle, personal achievement and/or building something new and original would of brought them. What we think of as technology, they only see a system or social experiment.

Where in reality they have turned the Earth into a Douglas Adams-like computer by interfering with Earth's geology and pretending they don't know this, or it's a gift from god for man's sole benefit. They cap this information like an oil well and think the cap will never burst or there will never be a leak, forgetting true information is never lost.

Like anomalies are always treated with scepticism, information always reappears and often as inspiration while in possession of capable minds who by courtesy provide warning and direction, which if not heeded the information transforms like fission into questions that just grow and continue to emerge as conjugations in new situations of problems that should never of existed, until the information gets an equivalent reply.

Are we that primitive and narrow to not consider how ignored information all by itself will grow into a monster that will enter the realms of physics and geophysics? This phenomena of, "From flimsy information to hard reality" is not a miracle of magic where things appear out of nowhere, but very specific systems that appear out of practically nothing and following simple information protocols ending its cycle specifically targeting its cause. It seems the universe, itself, is alive and Earth can be seen as a showroom for this.

Its own intelligence that most experience so far and deal with is equivalent to some central nervous system intelligence or telephone exchange which all have sufficient mathematics and support systems to enact similar defensive strategies or enact changes in a systems protocol. if information did not have this power the Universe would of self destructed long ago.

So when/where it comes to producing engines/Work, it can be shown that it is always the bad ideas that get produced, discussed and marketed as "good" first, which is where too-much Private Enterprise comes out as a bad thing. Now, we can leave economic idealism's because this digress turned a profit were we see, now, on the books that there is no difference between entities like "Communist party" or "Private Corporation" because their goal is the same. To own and control everything.

Capitalism, stripped of political motives and ideologies of peer/cast systems is a powerful evolutionary tool that brings out the best in human beings, where in an alternate universe I would not need to write a preamble or background every couple of chapters to explain simple things because they keep changing the meaning of the important concepts to fit political/religious views, instead of the truth. Thermodynamics, unlike Physics, does not lie and should be in charge of Economic philosophy and policy.
Without energy and trade, there is no civilisation, and if your source of energy and trade must be obtained through conquest or exploitation, it means that it is not sustainable.

Until that time happens we have its history, or preamble to read and learn from.............

“New and Improved” engines. Not New and Improved Thermodynamics

Always, "improved" versions appear when they knew all along about the evils, but best implementations of/to/for their systems because, in Thermodynamics the invention could not have existed without this knowledge beforehand.

Modern Stirling Engine
How hot and cold air function dynamically together through a third system to produce clean and efficient mechanical Work
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Time: 17:48

We can readily see this phenomenon of good always ending last in reality in this video on the very efficient Stirling engine (adiabatic Stirling Cycle) which was invented, developed, built and proven by Robert and James Stirling. (Scottish Engineers). (see video)

Yet, teaching things by Nicolas Carnot (a theoretical physicist), like the so-called Carnot's theorem, describing things with discreet and specific processes ("irreversible") that only involve, what we know today as the Second Law of Thermodynamics (for consumers) and combustion via a closed system; developed into assembly for releasing toxic-chemical energy in their most efficient and wasteful forms are the only things taught to developing minds by Theoretical physics-loving teachers.

The Theoretical physicist is just the modern-day Merlin and so should be loved in the same sense one loves 'Harry Potter' and courtesans because their entire thinking is beyond Nature, which is necessary when there's a war so they can create never-before-seen weapons (like the A-bomb) for kings et al. (they'll work for anyone).

Finally, this is because war itself is unnatural because it is just one system fighting (or fighting over) another system. Its elements (people) are who pay the costs for something they would never benefit from and can more easily obtain from cooperation than annihilation.
To this day, every politician argues or manipulates for or against some system, which can be anything that does not exist, but by attaching someone's face or personality to it. (pick a "bad guy") This, they hope, creates a "situation", exactly in the same manner as a quasiparticle is discussed and treated by the theoretical physicist.
It is the teachers job in civilisations to indoctrinate children in believing as true, systems over elements and their assemblies, where the stercus taurie of history goes on. i.e. “The most things change, the more they stay the same”.

Title page of the 1824 French first edition of ‘Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les machines propres à développer cette puissance’
The 118-page book published in 1824 by French physicist Nicolas Carnot.
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When one gets old enough to buy a car, one does not think of the implications of the Internal combustion engine. This "development" is no accident because Nicolas Carnot in his, 1824 monograph ‘Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire’, was describing better Locomotive Steam engines (to help France's economy after losing the Napoleonic wars), which is a true engine system, where the Reversible isothermal reaction was key to the entire book's discussion —Not the "internal combustion engine", which is only a power-producing device where the Second Law of Thermodynamics, hardly, does not apply!

In fact, The Carnot Cycle accounts for a isothermal compression stroke —from steam to hot water when a condenser is provided.

Nevertheless, this is what’s promoted by modern-day physicists and teachers, as being the highest and best quality technology, engineering and thinking, mostly because of these pieces of history regarding a spectrum of inclusions and involving favoritism of scientists and their theories, by other scientists over engineers, and overdeveloped Aristotelian material heat theories involving, among other things, Connate pneuma and Descarte's Ethereal matter, Newton's Frigorific particles, Becher's Phlogiston and finally Caloric particles (discussed later).

Giorgione - Three Philosophers
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Based on dispersed remarks in Aristotle's writings, which discusses material persistence through the relationship of heat and "vital heat" (body heat), as "inborn pneuma and aether".

This heat theory was his final answer to the question how the faculties of soul are transmitted, via sperm, from parent to offspring! This theory, was central in understanding the concepts between matter and form, body and soul. (Welcome to ancient thinking, which through modern theoretical physics, its matrix still survives!)

So, this must be the reason why, in how modern-day physicists, teachers, professors and mathematicians don't understand things like Stirling engines (among other devices, as will be shown). —Where like Aristotle's theory on sperm (He didn't have a microscope) they, without examining engines, create and "educate" people in their theory's about engines while congratulating themselves on a wondrous scientific achievement!

The Waitress and The Theoretical Physicist
In this clip: Sheldon (a Theoretical Physicist) mocks Penny (a waitress) over the internal combustion engine and gasoline.
😂 Laugh-O-Meter 😂 By now, you should laugh at the joke for completly different reasons than the audience laughs and be aware of it.
If not, there will be tons of other IQ-augmenting pages to read!)
and that's no joke!

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Stirling engines must also have a Regenerative heat ex-changer, which no heat engine does.

This shows that people who discuss these things, like in Wikipedia, where we find a LTD (low-temperature difference) engine, (among others) which ARE heat engines but with no regenerator, are as well given the nomenclature, "Stirling engine" which, for me, can be very frustrating and disappointing.

Nevertheless, like the Google Search engine, if one uses a scale-like system when looking through the ever-changing Wikipedia over time, we see the tides, ebb and flow of stupidity and opinion versus facts and knowledge. It was, after all, conceived as a social experiment, therefore my frustrations or any negative opinions are not findings or conclusions, but expressions of the time they were written.

Further, there are physicists, teachers and car/truck manufacturers discussing/advertising in a baroque manner, "efficiency" and Work for internal combustion engines, while insisting that they are "heat engines", when they are not.
i.e. Anything that turns a low-volume vapour into a high-volume gas to push a piston or turbine, where the explosion (sound) is turned into heat (Muffler) and all the heat generated is turned into waste, and the coolant is used to heat the interior is NOT a "heat engine".

Most of the heat that was created and discarded is just a collateral part of a chemical reaction in turning (at atmospheric pressure) a hydrocarbon of low volume into a form of carbon monoxide/dioxide that naturaly would have a higher volume. The "efficiency" in what system they relate to (a heat engine) does not exist!

Concerning Matter's states (solid, liquid gas), people are left by educators only those given by Nature, the instinctive awareness of it, which is no different as we've had in palaeolithic times, and who also had no idea what they can do for life beyond what our senses say they do.

The "Work" produced can only be calculated or measured with Gas Laws, Closed-system Thermodynamics (called a Thermodynamic system) and with Statistical mechanics (Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) together, which in my GenX 57 years I've never heard. So, we hear Ph.D. "Dissertationese" and stercus taurie instead. These people are so good, they make bullsh*t sound better than the truth.

So we will pay the price because no one wants to learn BASIC Thermodynamics which describes and explains the implications of any mechanics, chemistry and all physical laws, or processes, and describes Movement (virtually ignored by physicists except in quantum mechanics as quasiparticles and in its myriad of synonyms as millennial self-interest, i.e. "The Environmental Movement").

But through this knowledge, we would learn, without having to think, how to properly and automatically manage energy and matter, which maintains existence and the value of real estate. Meaning thus......

Starving Polar Bear
This is what climate change looks like. It's not a stretch to imagine that, before long, our grandkids and great grandkids will also be looking for food in the trash.
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The polar bear, today, is losing his snow-filled land and tomorrow we will lose all our coastal cities.
The Environment is just a gigantic laboratory.

We've been experimenting with animals in the laboratory for centuries. Nature has taken the experiment called "Man" to the outdoors in Her lab. Based on Her findings with Polar bears: This is what will happen to us. (see video clip)

Let us not forget about our primitive and warring economic system (i.e. the war is between the tribes 'Private enterprise' and the losing 'Free enterprise') interfering with technology via corporate lawyers and and prefer to make everything perishable including everything that concerns Nature so that the same things can be sold over and over again ("new and improved") which actually stresses immovables (their value) and impedes the movement of new ideas, made necessary for their time.

This is why multinationals, trust funds, slush-fund charities and the international banks are called pimps by certain political/social groups because, like a pimp, they only understand one economic model and no nothing of potential.

Nothing in Nature is Perishable (this word should be struck from the English language), nor is anything superfluous, and things that seem to "disappear" or change are actually part of some natural cycle of which it is not beyond the intuitive scientist, empathetic poet or sympathetic artist to trace these cycles and their wondrous journeys using Thermodynamics as a philosophical tool for its elements, or as an instrument in metaphysics for its assemblies and systems.

As for "substance" since, so far, phlogiston was a material theory for heat after all; we find here, as just mentioned, with phlogiston the true birth of modern science and medicine in both good and bad forms since this "substance" was not an objective discovery, but also was not something based on superstitious ideas, or was it ever something miraculous. It was created/developed for profit!

The Survey That Wasn't
Stephen Barrett, M.D.
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Beyond recycling bad ideas and bad technology, "Phlogiston" survives today for the purposes of marketing excellent apothatic epistemology.

In the 21st century, we find it the medicinal arts (Antiphlogistine and in quackery, remarkably like that from the 17th century (Enter Baron Munchhausen) and with a new name, and exists as a system and is known today as "Anti-Oxidants" with miraculous abilities (like removing wrinkles, etc.), which they sell to tired, lonely or gullible people watching/listening to late-night TV or AM Radio. (No wonder the Baron hated doctors!)

People with premature wrinkles should be balancing their diet, drinking more water and be in bed at that hour, and depending on age, getting more sex (masturbation will do) and more sleep, which would be more effective and improve other matters involving stress-related health problems, premature aging, mood, vitality and appearance.

Good health does not come from some miracle toxic tonic, but by doing careful research and adapted to you specific needs and schedule because everybody is different.

This is only the first example where I will describe the meta-truth that information goes to where it is most needed or belongs to, all by itself, which is a concept in Information theory based on the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.

Vain people should take note of this as well as lawmakers: “There is a sufficiency in the world for man's need but not for man's greed.” —Mahatma Gandhi.
The rest of us can be content with its ‘Principle of Sufficiency’, which states: “ More things are going right than going wrong ”, which is a principle of the Zeroth Law described later (and in depth, in another monologue). It is just a question of whether we want to be included in that Principle of Nature, or not.

For now, all one have to do is say with a smile this one mantra of the Principle of Sufficiency when something bad happenned, or you must do something unpleasant/inconvenient:
“More good things happened today than bad” and I guarantee you things will improve overall everywhere instantly.

The collective interactions of a huge group of individuals (like humans beings doing “the wave” at a stadium) usually gets called a “quasiparticle”.
Click or tap to read fascinating essay and comparative explanation of, what is a quasiparticle? GD
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Anyway, ideas and philosophy on Substance and Energy fields were evolving, and getting closer to how electromagnetic fields and quasiparticles, are considered and known today by real scientists as opposed to celebrity scientists or "communicators".

When you think about it; that is exactly what a theory like, in this example, 'phlogiston' is supposed to be and do: Just point you in the right direction, and it doesn't need to be perfect either plus the good parts always lead to new things anyway, but the problem here is that science and its edifices in history, like the Royal Society and its members did not go far enough and they ended up only attacking things like religion or Aristotle to make up for their own deficiencies.

By acknowledging Aristotle in the first place, where by the 18th and 19th centuries they should of abandoned him with the power and proof of/in these new emerging and unique philosophies, and forge-ahead something new if what they had to sell, or say, to the public was the absolute truth instead of attacking faith, the Church and its pet philosophers. This shows that learned men had something to hide by floating ideas and flooding media and academia with such nonsense and stupidity in the first place.

Representation of St Augustine
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Concerning the Church: There was always the ever-popular St. Augustine to consider too before the 19th century (both, Aristotle and Augustine were still read at the time, of which the Jesuits were busy vindicating Aristotle), with things like Aristotle's, “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” (among other things) which still holds true today and would of been an explanation for, "Inevitable Theory Failure".)

The Church, itself, traditionally supported the interpretive and symbolic St. Augustine (Aristotle was not rediscovered until the 11th century), “ Of an intimate relation between space, time, and matter; all three, according to St. Augustine in his, 'Confessions and the City of God', came into being as a unity and ways of speaking that purport to separate them - such as "outside the universe" or "before the beginning of the universe" are, in fact, meaningless ”.
It is the opinion's of many that Augustine's way of thinking has a strong resonance with General Relativity "W and may I also include the work of Ernst Mach. (Austrian Physicist)

The Holy See never burned books, but only forbade them and instead tortured and/or burned at the stake its authors, and (using Phlogiston unwittingly) they let the ancient books rot and oxidise in monasteries.

The choreography and theatrics were always flamed by bishops (who overstepped their authority) or Protestants, clerics, extremists, splinter groups and heretics who burned books among other activities. See the latest: 'Outrage: Extremists take ancient statues, damage Iraqi site' by By Vivian Salama and Cara Anna, March 6, 2015
Anyway, more on Aristotle and Augustine later, but first let's consider Richard Feynman (a Nobel Laureate in Physics) on this matter concerning whole's and sum's and theory failure:

Each piece, or part, of the whole of nature is always merely an approximation to the complete truth, or the complete truth so far as we know it.
In fact, everything we know is only some kind of approximation, because we know that we do not know all the laws as yet. Therefore, things must be learned only to be unlearned again or, more likely, to be corrected.” FI

I would add to Feynman's comments; That we are part of Nature, so it is impossible to "know" Nature as if it were something separate from ourselves.

The good part of Phlogiston is its bad part: ‘The Rot/Rust Conundrum’

Page from an old book on Natural Philosophy
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Remember earlier: “The Phlogiston theory permitted clarification of the different systems, for combustion and of metabolism, by rust”?
“This enabled recognition in that the metabolism, and combustion could be understood in terms of many related chemical processes”

This made it clear that Aristotle's "Material persistence", "Connate pneuma", his theory on the relationship of heat and body heat, and how the faculties of soul are transmitted via sperm, between aether, matter and the body?
This was not as good as Phlogiston!

For anything, of what the natural philosopher knew back then through other means concerning "theory failure"; it was that all things should be expected to fail anyway beyond a certain magnitude or point in time. Their initial purpose was to disprove things, —Not prove things.

A theory would of been just a tool at reaching this "larger magnitude" because we discover at that point we were in a closed system, much like the evolution of all the relativistic theories from Galileo to Einstein, or any form of subject involving any type of dynamics where if you maintain the Work it will not dissipate the action or purpose, instead of making hyperbolic rules and premature universal laws of Nature.

This would have been a natural philosopher's fundamental approach to Entropy (should they of discovered it) for any "metaphysical" closed system, later known in physics through/as the Second Fundamental Theorem, created by Rudolf Clausius (a Prussian physicist and mathematician).

This is all really disguised political pre-economics theory and philosophy invented during the Industrial revolution that serves the purposes of warfare and private enterprise and has very little to do with "science" itself, or free enterprise.
(My preference for the left-leaning capitalism is because it is less ideological or racist, and tends to be non-political.)

In this case, involving heat and cold, and an open/closed/isolated-system "Entropy" (which didn't exist yet at the time of Becher) and it would have been a form of thermal inactivity of any kind, in its theoretical inability to produce or reproduce any kind of work or rust (zero entropy) or power except to the system's own "destruction" instead of "transformation" which would of been an alternate foundation to/for modern physics.

Emergence of vortex structure in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate.
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Disregarding its esoteric history: It is via the Phlogiston theory that the Bose-Einstein Condensate was naturally theorized in its inception phase (Research: The work of Guillaume Amontons & not just with Wikipedia) where at a certain temperature and pressure/vacuum, a thing like "rust" and its properties we are all accustomed to, would no longer be possible, but Work was, or could, still be produced and this could only be so if the matter itself changed into a different phase (i.e. water, gas, liquid), and it is this new theoretical phase that is responsible for any changes in properties and characteristics of that particular matter which can produce Work.

One will find that where there is no more motion, movement or vibration there is no matter either in any state except as a plenist form of non-existence, which may or may not be some other state of matter, but if that is so (and this is more likely since Dark matter/energy can fit neatly here and no longer need to be classified separately, or appear mysterious) then there are other states beyond non-existence as well and it is a thing like "rust" that points the reason why and then the way to go because everything, including "nothing" has properties, even by our own level of understanding things so far.

We find that it is only the system itself that has changed or affected not the individual elements! Or, the system has been transformed into another type, which in this case is Alchemy, where "Rust" is a closed system concept.

Making An Authentic Samurai Sword

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But "Ferric oxide" and it's Work can be found in open, closed or isolated systems and concepts, to do all sorts of jobs in Nature, where each have different purposes, agendas, dynamics, paradigms and get/place their energy from/to entirely different sources/places which involve cycle's operations in entirely different ways and means, which are impossible to include or describe as one thing in closed-system mathematics or by what they call a formula (really an "endo-formula").

This is the true birth of modern Chemistry where serious people in Natural philosophy and doing real research in Nature (more later) stopped using Alchemist's terms like, "rust" and replaced it "Ferric Oxide".
With future development in the course and passage of time, the "Philosopher's Stone" was replaced be "Nuclear Chemistry". This is all because of Thermodynamics and its wonderful history which treats science as a journey and not some meaningless dogmatic state of affairs run by committees.

Their differences do not even exist in any political or economic theory so far, but can in literature, poetry or protocol or in other areas like in liturgy or ritual, like in the making of Samurai swords, being a beautiful example and expression, which employs all three systems in the manipulation of matter and energy in their creation. (see clip above)

The first Syllogism (The foundation of logic) in existence, and is to be found everywhere in the Universe:
The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamic.

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The difference would of been that this "failure", by way of understanding Nature through the thoughts of the natural philosopher, it ends up creating new and better things via the discovery of Thermal Equilibrium, which would put a limit to any closed-system entropic activity automatically (exactly like the dynamic of the Universe's Background Radiation) and be "in tune" with any adjacent open system, where with understanding ideas though the scientist (who came later), things just get worse permanently with their ideas of man-made unlimited power with no thermal equilibrium regulating that and the solution is always to just add more heat, and more fuel or adding more closed system devices (as elements) to the system.

The Science Delusion
Rupert Sheldrake describes (with examples) the differences between bad modern science (dogmatic) versus good science. Here we see an example of dogmatic scientists, as reported by Sheldrake, of the inappropriate use of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity with the use of Lorentz contraction as an excuse.
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Although the phlogiston theory was wrong, it was not all bad because it all pointed in the right direction by embracing simplicity in the most important way, like the ( "without colour, odour, taste, or mass" ) part of this theory and distinctions concerning this will be looked at more closely later-on in this monologue.

Anyway, this is remarkable because it was still a material theory, but we see the beginnings of a transition in thought that was itself as wonderfully transitive as the not-yet-existing Zeroth Law of Thermodynamic where this law of Nature also designates and supplies its own third assembly in it's dynamic, where phlogiston's "No Mass" seamlessly becomes modern Thermodynamic's "Any Mass"!

We are more interested now in the where, when, how and why, and their changes than in absolute values (which is also a way of seeing the dual evolution of really bad science and really good science (not forgetting their accompanying bad science books and videos).

Not to worry. All bad science today is mostly found only in physics, —especially theoretical physics and cosmology originating from the United States because they are mostly just philosophy and don't have any part in any history of Thermodynamics but ironically in ancient philosophy and ancient religions. These days, students study theoretical physics in Europe and that's where it's happening.

This is why they have so many presenters, communicators, promoters of physics, theoretical physics and cosmology. Ph.D.'s in physics, theoretical physics and cosmology are handed out these days like hamburgers at a fast-food.

Human beings are actually quite smart.
There is only stupidity in the way.

Considering an enormous lack of proper scientific instruments in the past; we find that, observation, conjecture, natural philosophy, intuition and instinct were right on target the first time because the only means for discovery, and disproving things, was by using equilibrium and/or equivalency which existed before the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamic, and is the next best thing, being that Thermal Equilibrium and its transitive way in functioning is a major principle in this Law of Nature, and its philosophy is not confined exclusively to heat, just like the 'Conservation of Energy' is a major part of The First Law of Thermodynamics, and also applies to all philosophy, i.e. “If it's Conserved, it exists”. (Not, "I think, therefore I am" because that statement makes many assumptions and it makes man the measure of/for all things; all pending approval.)

The Clausian (always increasing) entropy of the Second Law of Thermodynamic is also something to be reexamined since it only deals in classical-mechanical closed systems and because of this should not, in any way, be some post-modern middle-class philosophy of life in both its passive or aggressive manifestations.

One way, or another; to progress, we have to think differently.

Turning Co2 Into Rocket Propellant
Going to other planets makes us think differently and not the way private enterprise, organized science and organized religion tell us to think. The field of Thermodynamics is the obvious field of study from their types of indoctrination and the clearer understanding of Free Enterprise.
Before we start doing this on Mars, maybe we should apply this system on Earth first and de-carbonate our atmosphere.
Full Documentary: THE MARS UNDERGROUND [HD] Full Movie
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So, this can get pretty complicated, but for now it is just the principles involved that we need, where later with other things introduced, everything will fall into place.

Theoretically, one could build for fun an engine made of Hydrocarbons (a tough heat resistant plastic) and use a form of powdered vaporized iron as fuel, which would be surreal at best, but also quite satisfactory to watch it happen, and it's just as easy to turn iron oxide back into iron as it is to turn carbon dioxide compounds back into hydrocarbons in all kinds of creative, economical and inventive ways.
The study and understanding of hot and cold comes before physics and chemistry. I will show why and how this is so, in many ways.

The other important item in the developing history of the theory of heat that was left to be discovered is that hot and cold are always transitive, dynamic, and heat is additive, but not subtractive* and is governed by Thermal Equilibrium (A basic principle of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics).

*In an open system, to remove heat, IT MUST be transformed into Work or information and cannot be dissipated. Think of the implications concerning the interests of private enterprise and religion!

Concerning the Bible, none of god's miracles, that would of generated enormous amounts of collateral heat and of taken a long time to dissipate is not accounted for. If one continues to believe nevertheless then there is no reason why a god would create such a universe, therefore nothing exists, or he's only interested in creating discord, therefore sin is meaningless. It is better to migrate to Nature as your deity and worship the Sun.

Here we are studying movement (not motion) with still photographs
Through this, we find that chemistry itself is cyclic and renewable by the addition of an open system's energy which also transfers matter, restoring balance with compounds where the health of any environment is naturally and nurturingly maintained.
Here the reader will find an in-depth discussion on Co2 . Not just the gas, but in all its forms and how they all work together, maintaining not only environment's but the health and well being of/in all things. Any discussion of Co2 as just an atmospheric concern is completely misguided and is worthless as science.

An "environment" is not a THING as religion and some "communicators" like to relate, but is itself a pseudo-open DYNAMIC SYSTEM and it always gets its energy to function, primarily, by Radiation and interacting movement between celestial bodies (not motion). (There is no Convection or Conduction in the "vacuum" of space)

If we go further, we discover that this dynamic-reality is present in all philosophy as well, where we must not only consider forms, designs, things and different systems, but also their movements, transitive cycles, natural vibrations and the study of motions in detail as we see in all forms of mechanics, and these things will be presented here in this monologue where their manifestations will be revealed in their activity and the Work they produce and where/how they directly affect everything (including ourselves) everywhere without having to reference materialisms, pseudo-science and/or any Worldview postulates (Weltanschauung).

There are also many things in physics and chemistry to be re-examined since they appear to only involve the Id, as with Jung's theory on the collective individual unconscious that produces monsters, like described in the science-fiction film 'Forbidden Planet' (1956).

For a more modern presentation, we have the ever-depressing mathematician Stephen Hawking communicating through mass media and academia 'Forbidden Planet'-like Jungian monsters that are suitable for modern tastes and private enterprise groups, yet at the same time people like him believe in miracles like the "Big Bang", but he does not believe in any form of future. See: Stephen Hawking waxes dismal on time travel and the afterlife. It is already a proven concept in Quantum mechanics that no one really dies and anyone who does discuss death, does so in limited parameters. (Discussed later)

Hawking's "thinking" is exactly like the Kelvin/Clausian Consumer-grade Second Law of Thermodynamic whereby completing everyone's "education" by applying it to people instead of physics.

For that, and only that, he deserves a Ph.D. because his life is a actually a thesis, because he is one of the few who could concede he was wrong.

In considering heat we must put aside the idea of hot and cold for they are only different degrees of heat and nowhere there exists the absence of it, nor are they distinct forms of existence. "Absolute Zero" is itself a "measure" of non-existence based on some scale-system and is impossible with any form of matter being present except as some theoretical system, but as previously said: "a system is not reality", and any system can be changed or affected. Before energy, there is always matter, its properties and its effects to consider first and there are no exceptions. PCR

We can manipulate both hot and cold whenever and wherever we want, where concerning chemistry we can do the same, but that is a companion story that will be discussed later since this involves many systems working together naturally where its introduction will appear once simple thermodynamic systems are explained first, among a few other important things that involve the history of mathematics, social history and closed systems.

Since education changes in quality/quantity from place to place and overtime I will be using intuitive examples that exist all around us in Nature so that their assimilation, their potential and ideals will find evidence in the mind and will be immediately applicable to any physical thing or system.

The visitor, here, is warned in advance that Thermodynamics is the opposite of physics, chemistry, faith, most philosophy and is entirely syllogistic. Its maths is based on the scale system where our regular arithmetic and maths is often unsuitable for its being or for its purpose and that it deals with changes and explains how and why they occur and why they occur all the time and will continue forever. It deals more with movement (which is perpetual) than with motion (which is not).
If it's static (like an electrostatic field), then whatever must produce a field and in that field things are constantly on the move and are never the same from one moment to the next. In fact, if any field of matter/energy itself becomes static, non-existence becomes the only reality.

It repudiates every static idea or absolute of physics and chemistry and any miracle or annihilation anyone ever dreamed up and reveals that all these things are systems with different conditional entropies and the ones we find important are actually man-made and that's the only reason why they are important. Thermodynamics describes only changes and differences and not statics and similarities while change goes on forever, things that we hold dear or think everlasting will not.

Man has a unique point of view concerning heat that cannot exist anywhere else in the universe.

Termites and their sophisticated HVAC systems based solely on Thermodynamics. (involving no physics or chemistry)
A short compilation on natural technology involving HVAC systems that has nothing to do with physics, but only Thermodynamics. Notice that the entire living environment built by termites is functioning like one very sophisticated PCM (Phase-change material) system, which stores latent-heat, keeping their environment constantly cool. (hint: The termites salt cells and radiator/evaporators do the job of handling Thermal Equilibrium were the temperature does not rise, but the pressure does, whose energy is ingeniously used for part of the ventilation system.)
Can you find other things going on in this system that involve only matter connected to open-systems elements that produce Work?.
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Even Termites know how to manage hot and cold better than we do.
From another perspective, none of our technology has any meaning or purpose on another planet like Mars or Venus, etc., except to humans on Earth. Thermodynamics shows that the data we collect from these places is already contaminated with our technology, our perceptions, our ideas, —even the flawless software that runs these robots is a contamination where these places are actually more than just rocks orbiting the sun, but have their own unique Thermodynamics, chemistry and physics that are totally alien to Earth's and our expectations on Earth, —Especially regarding our closed-system technologies and beliefs.

Newton's physics may extend our arms to neighbouring planets involving our physics, but does not with Thermodynamics and the further we venture out, the more alien and disconnected we will become because of this love affair with Newtonian physics, closed-system cosmology, theoretical physics and closed-system mathematics. We are in fact building some grand illusion of the cosmos which we will end up finding our own demise within that thing because even astronauts, scientists and engineers don't even know basic Thermodynamics and its power, which is documented and will be demonstrated in this history/monologue.

Froth catches fire over Bellandur lake in Bengaluru
From Termites to Man: We actually do have lakes and rivers catching fire spontaneously with all their filth. (Well, Nature has to do something if people won't which is why there is disease, floods or fires) People in Western societies must remember that their comfortable lifestyle comes at other nations, environment and culture's paying this expense. Thumbnail for Video
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It seems like our modern-day scientists and industrialists have only improved on Cavendish's Phlogiston theory, by making it a business-model instead, and that is why we have cranky artists trying to make the invisible, visible and still only a few see, or want to see; to the point that it is now possible to calculate and quantify the damage each unthinking-inactive person creates to contribute to war, plunder, disease, death and pollution, just as Albert Einstein predicted:
"The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing anything".

I have already shown, with the Internal Combustion engine, how a gas can pack a punch while not being a heat engine.
In another example: As will be demonstrated, air or any gas can be many times hotter than the melting/fusing temperature of any solid (at atmospheric pressure it will glow visibly very bright at thousands to millions of degrees°F and active plasma at billions of °F, etc.) without changing chemical properties or very little that remedies itself through some natural cycle.

This can be achieved with gases more easily mechanically without the use of combustion which is a more elaborate and wasteful process to attain such high temperatures to melt metals or extract them from rock since we are only dealing with increasing intensity, but instead we could increase the quantity of (compression), or frequency in the system itself using molecular movement of gases at super/hypersonic speeds.

This would be a dynamical-system and not the material/assembly-system that people are more accustomed to and both are capable of producing Networked Elements and be combined in an infinite assortment of ways which will be explored later using simple technology where one could easily extrapolate and create new things to the limit of the extent of their imagination and/or their ability to carry out unique experiments.

Rubbing two solids together (Work) produces
heat/fusion/melting or burning.
This can be achieved as well by manually rubbing sticks together (two solids), but their properties would change very rapidly too, which is one of the reasons why making a fire in this manner is an art form where science, itself, could only discuss this as some principle, or theory. What one reads in books and sees in movies during the Cold war where some physicist's "formula", that involves matter, was stolen by the "enemy" we find also involves a specific existence or enslavement to a type of technology based only on a consumer-grade Second Law of Thermodynamics for everything.

Any "Formula" that one learns cannot exist or work in any open or isolated system (they have Laws and principles), but can only work in a closed system and all closed-systems are manufactured in one way or another, —even by Nature. Closed systems (and their always-increasing entropy) are necessary to/for Nature, for the sake of evolution since anything that goes through a closed system's cycle is not the same thing upon completion of that cycle.

Example: Unlike fossil fuels, the Sun is also closed system, but will last a lot longer. Long enough for us to mature and evolve and learn to live with ourselves and others and travel in space-time.
Long after our present Theoretical physicists and Cosmologists sound like Aristotle and Fate no longer deals in good or evil, but life or death, Thermodynamics will be there instead and provide us with indispensable navigation tools and devices that are not-yet invented/patented, but I'll show one later so that I can prove there is truth of a future.

Think of it as a gift from Nature because one day we will realise that the Earth was just a cradle, or a coffin, and it is each individual who decides that, but the responsibility belongs to mankind.

"Burning" Steel Wool
The important thing is that all these dynamical forms of creating heat can be transferred via radiation, convection and conduction. (In a vacuum or in open space only radiation is possible, which itself can be fascinating in developing radiation for any type of heat and pressure and devices sensitive enough to pick up this radiation where losses are minimized through convection, conduction and ablation and put it to Work.)

By way of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamic, we could by continuously adding new pressure to a gas that does not support combustion, melt steel from what exists at room-temperature by merely manipulating a system mechanically working at subsonic speeds and avoid what one sees in this animation above.
All these Zeroth Law of Thermodynamic processes can achieve many other things besides being thermometers that are all useful, practical, promote life and are environmentally friendly.

The study of cold teaches us things heat does not.
Here we get a better synopsis from an old U.S. Air Force training film.
Principles of Mechanical Refrigeration 1963 US Air Force; How Refrigerators Work
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Thermodynamics also makes one totally aware of the different systems in existence all around us, both in Nature and by those that are man-made and most importantly teaches us that systems and their subsequent networked elements are just tools to arrive at certain very specific things and are never to be considered or treated as real things or reality, or even protected by man-made laws. Most of the things we do and involve our lives with involve just moving things around. Thermodynamics is about moving heat around and how that is achieved so it makes an excellent template/philosophy to follow with, instead of some scientific/political material worldview or rationality.

Thermodynamics and its simple easy-to-understand systems that deal with entropy apply appropriately everywhere in the universe in both the microcosm and macrocosm

In the universe, all by itself, without heat, there is no energy, but energy can be put in some system to create heat and we get billed for it too, but that is not the way the universe itself works!
Nature did not create money, nor has any use for fiat paper money and all the gold and diamonds we value are like a grain of table salt to us in value. Nevertheless Nature does exchange other forms of value. It's time we get in touch with these values.

At the core, they teach very bad science these days.
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Now these days, physicists, cosmologists and their communicators in social media have truly overstepped themselves.
If you look at this illustration at right carefully, you'll see that there is something seriously wrong with the statement, “Any irreversible process increases the entropy of the universe”.
Where I circled in red should read "the system" (i.e. specifically "closed system") -not "the universe".(Why are they always so concerned about the Universe?) Entropy is always conditional and quite different with the system it is part of and is not the treated-as-universal “Always-increasing ” entropy of the Second law in classical mechanics.

The universe is an open system because (among other things) the Cosmos is Expanding and ACCELERATING. Whether this is because of exothermic, endothermic, or both types of the activity going on simultaneously; we don't know yet.

The universe is a dynamic and a very, very, very big place and the Earth-human perspective is not either, or big enough to even remotely start making these grandiose conclusions about, "the effects of always-increasing entropy".
From this corruption, from the beginning of something's Thermodynamics, we find that the physics created out of it, serve things other than humanity, growth or evolution.

What they teach is opinion and religious philosophy (made to appear like science), not physics (which should only be stating known facts and their dynamical systems), and this is all over the place, so this is another system that promotes indoctrination, programming or antiquated religion.
Only Thermodynamics, good maths and chemistry together, can make claims of what goes on anywhere in the universe.

The way they teach chemistry to kids, in our age, is a sham where a simple course on basic Thermodynamics, —Not chemistry, would remedy this situation because that is exactly what Thermodynamics deals with; which are those, supposedly unimportant, little things like solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, Bose-Einstein Condensates, etc., which are called, "Phases" in Thermodynamics and only exist at certain temperature ranges and pressures. Basic principles are easily understandable or intuitive to/for any form or quality of intelligence, the most important would be Thermal Equilibrium. Such knowledge would prevent situations like shown here and if one plans to reside only on Earth we only need to know a tiny fraction of the family of these phase changes, but this seems to be deliberately squashed.

Enthalpy of Solution

Enthalpy demonstrated by a high-school chemistry teacher.
(and science “ putting the cart before the horse ”).
This is not chemical reaction, but an endothermic reaction.
It is because there are thermodynamic endothermic and exothermic reactions that there is chemistry in the first place, —Not the other way around, as is always assumed.

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Courtesy of Massimo Bozzi - You Tube Published on Apr 20, 2012

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Demonstration clip at the right on Enthalpy (internal energy): This is true with much simpler processes that are not so spectacular.
We can see "enthalpy" at Work by simply soaking dirty dishes or clothes in the sink or washer (or just keeping them moist) where they become easier to clean later which would occur faster the hotter the water, up to a point. Aside from water being an excellent solvent, it took heat energy from the water itself to do, or the water took heat energy from other sources. For your own demonstration on Internal Energy, try soaking a broken dirty dish in different waters from cold to warm to hot, and try cleaning the different pieces in 2 minutes.

In Europe, they have front-loading washers that use very little water to wash clothes very effectively and they use this Thermodynamic principle of Internal Energy to do "cleaning". Of course, one's wash takes around 2-3 hours to do, but water being a precious resource in certain areas and energy being expensive as well as pollution being a concern this becomes a convenience rather than an annoyance.

This process must be differentiated from closed-system increasing Entropy which also "breaks things down", but in entropy's case this ONLY applies to any closed system (which represents a tiny fraction of the universe), not isolated or open systems.
With Internal energy enthalpy, we are dealing directly with actual things (the movement of atoms or Democritus) that do one-function universally, not systems or the systems that systems create (Plato). Always-increasing entropy is the movement of Cartesian time and is Relative to closed systems.

This is important because we just need to look at some system and not know of any adiabatic process going on and if there is any change or deterioration, we know it's a closed system. i.e. "Time will tell" is its broad expression.

On the other hand: What's remarkable about our primitive Phlogiston theory is that natural philosophers included rust (among other things) along with combustion, as performing a related function where besides Latent heat, Heat transfer and Enthalpy, it opened the door wide for an Entropy that corresponds to the Third Law of Thermodynamics, and not the Second Law's version, which will also be explained later in detail.

Heat is the first sign that directly tells one that something is going wrong or going right and everything is heat, including things like sound. In any sound wave, molecules in any fluid are being heated as the wave of energy passes.

Thermodynamics simply does not exist in any form of human lawmaking and we will just forget logic (syllogism) altogether, unlike for things that involve basic elementary-school physics and chemistry which the visitor, here, will discover is quite insufficient. Thermodynamics is the complete expression of Nature, existence and reality, yet we prefer to be guided, or only deal with invisible divine entities, or physics which only deals with motion and not movement.
Then we have politicians, who think the value of higher education "is an abstraction".

I took a real estate course at OACIQ where closed systems, with always-increasing entropy are factored into the value/cost of any immovable and these were the only things considered. "Value", in this sense, becomes its own contradiction because why discuss value when we know it won't exist for one reason or another over a very short course of time? There is no recuperation, there is only depreciation. and they all had "formulas" to facilitate their calculation. At the time, there were even special calculators specific to/for real estate that we had to buy.

Things like a roof should be replaced every 25 years, windows 30 years. Bricks last for 60 years, exterior staircases, so many years... etc., etc. and the materials offered on the market to do the work is the only thing allowed by building codes, where better materials are illegal or difficult to obtain. Of course, I did not put these contradictions down in my exams. I was being trained to be a liar or a bullsh*tter for the state and various industries!

Included in that course was Real estate Law which was basically memorising and conjugating Quebec's Consumer-Protection act but was actually the pot calling the kettle black.

If human beings have laws for/in their societies without any interface with Nature, then they are not laws that mean anything anywhere beyond those societies and cultures, which increases the need for even more laws, police, armies of mercenaries, politicians and bureaucrats and building fences and walls to protect from a phantom anarchy that society itself creates; the fallout being the creation of even more fear in/with the general population that should not exist in the first place.
All this stercus taurie just leads one away from Real estate's real value in making a living out of it, and it's simple. “Location, Location, Location!”'

We will find later, here, that the police in any city is not just there to "protect and serve", and "uphold the law", they actually enforce ideals that only favour private enterprise and giant multinationals and private property and not free enterprise or public property, unless the person is being framed.

Just like I will show, many times, that people are only presented the consumer-grade Second Law of Thermodynamic as "science" and the real-complete Second Law along with the rest of the other laws either do not exist or are dogma (First Law) or is some miracle (like the Big Bang and/or the Big Crunch). One cannot get something out of nothing and something cannot become nil (which Hawking believes), so because of these discrepancies they present science to the media as a happening. To all scientists; Welcome back to the world of Art! (Science is a prodigal child of Art and Poetry from ancient times.)

The Real Thing (1980)
Parts 1 - 6
This brilliant series will allow you to coalesce and conjugate the difference between; when Nature lies and gambles and when man lies and gambles. They are not the same!

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In over ten years of research and writing about Thermodynamics I have arrived at many toxic and hostile opinions as to why the complete subject is non-existent in any curriculum in/at any level of education.
There are reasons, but it is a waste of time and energy to be emotional about interference from private enterprise groups, organized religions and organized science, social networks/media, mass media, "communicators", intellectuals, experts, celebrity scientists, etc., etc. who tirelessly flood the world with stercus tauri and closed systems that can only be sustained by destruction of systems that are self-sustaining which all life and existence depends upon. If authority presents everything as unrealistic, then what do we use our 5 senses and brains for?

There are worldview postulates too, as we have seen from the beginning of this history, and they grew in an apostolic way too, featuring Descartes, Newton, Cavendish that is worthy to discuss because that is another reason why Thermodynamics is not properly taught anywhere.

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If you watched the video above with Rupert Sheldrake in his book, ‘ The Science Delusion ’ : He discusses the belief, “ that science already understands the nature of reality in principle, leaving only the details to be filled in. ”

“ There is now a conflict in heart of science between science as a method of inquiry, based on reason, evidence, hypothesis and collective investigation. The other is science as a belief system or a worldview.

Unfortunately, the worldview aspect of science has come to inhibit and restrict free inquiry, which is the life-blood of the scientific endeavor.

Since the late 19th century, science has been conducted under the aspect of a belief system or worldview, which is essentially that of Materialism. (Philosophical Materialism) and the sciences are now wholly-owned subsidiaries of the materialist worldview.

If we take the ten dogmas, or assumptions of science and turn them into questions and see how well they stand up. If you look at them scientifically, none of them stand out very well.”

Sheldrake reveals to the public, the ten dogmas of science.
They hold hold that:

1. Everything is mechanical; only mechanistic explanations will do.
2. Matter is unconscious/inanimate.
3. The matter and energy of the universe are constant and has remained constant since the Big Bang.
4. The laws of nature are fixed.
5. Nature is without inherent purpose, and evolution has no goal.
6. Biological inheritance is a purely material process.
7. Minds are located within heads and are nothing but the activities of brains.
8. Memories are stored in the brain and are wiped out at death.
9. Telepathy and other psychic phenomena are illusory.
10. Mechanistic medicine is the only kind that works.

These things will all be examined in the following chapters, beginning with 'The Twisting of Our Perceptions of/in Matter and Energy'.

Before going there, I would like to propose to the reader, as a prerequisite, to watch an excellent series on "Perception" itself as a method to prepare the mind and condition the subject, we must unavoidably tread through without having to be bothered and move on.
I have enjoyed this 6 part series many times. Please scroll up a bit, watch and enjoy James Burke's ‘ The Real Thing ’ (1980)

GP duBerger

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Chapter 2 - ‘ The Twisting of Our Perceptions of/in Matter and Energy ’